The waistband was sewn on, using a 5/8" seam allowace on the fronts and tapering to 1/4" at the center back. I went ahead and cut a strip of the denim for the belt loops and topstitched, per the pattern instructions. It looks nice, but it is four layers thick! A bit much, especially as it will be doubled over to attach to the jeans. I think I need to come up with a thinner version.